Vitreo Retina Services

Vitreo Retina Services – Effective Treatment For Retina, Macula, And Vitreous Fluid Problems Of The Eye

What Are Vitreo Retinal Services?

The diagnosis and treatment of eye problems in the retina, macula and vitreous fluid are together known as Vitreo Retinal Services. This is a specialized treatment which uses the services of General Practitioner, Optician, and the specialist known as Ophthalmologist. The services also include surgical procedures for treating acute eye problems.

What Are Retina, Macula, And Vitreous Fluid?

Retina is a light-sensitive area located at the back of the eye. It is responsible for receiving light from the external world, creating a picture and transferring this picture to the brain via the optic nerve so that we can have vision.
Macula is the yellowish pigmented area located near the center of retina. It helps in providing keenest vision and has an oval shape.
Vitreous Fluid is a gel-like substance that occupies the space between the lens and the retina inside the eye. The clearness of this particular liquid helps in passing of light and improves vision of the eye.

What are the different diseases and conditions associated with retina?

The following diseases are noticeable in the retina and the other adjoining areas of the eye –

Diabetic Retinopathy

Age-related Macular Degeneration

Retinal Tear/Retinal Detachment

Retinal Tear/Detachment

Retinal tear and detachment is the leakage of fluid through the tear which separates the retina from the back of the eye. The primary causes include aging, eye-injury, and other eye-related problems.

Symptoms of Retinal Tear And/or Detachment

The vision gets affected and you start seeing specks or threads known as floaters.

You see lights, stars, or streaks known as flashes in the vision.

The vision also gets blurred and there is darkening of your side or peripheral vision.

Treatments of Retinal Tear And/or Detachment

Depending on the severity of the tear and the extent of detachment and damage done to the retina the following treatments are suggested –

Sealing A Tear or Pneumatic Retinopexy For Retinal Tear

The small and easily closeable tears are treated using this surgical procedure. A small gas bubble is inserted into the vitreous fluid to rinse and press the retina to close the tear. The tear can be subsequently sealed using a more advanced procedure using laser or cryopexy.

Retinal Detachment Treatments

The surgeon suggests a combination of the following treatments based on the severity of the retinal detachment –

Laser Treatment – : A non-invasive procedure involving the use of laser to control the vitreous fluid leakage and treat abnormal growth of blood vessels. A very useful and beneficial scarring effect is induced to cure or prevent the retinal detachment.

Scleral Buckle – :A silicon band or buckle is surgically sewn around the sclera or the white of the eye. This permanent and invisible buckle pushes the sclera towards the tear until it heals. The tear can then be sealed off using laser or cryo treatment.

Vitrectomy - : This is a sophisticated microsurgery for removing the vitreous gel from the inside of the eye. Specialized micro devices are used to observe and cut into the eye in a precise manner.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is chronic and patients have problem with insulin production or functioning. The blood supplied to various parts of the body has high sugar content and this affects different organs including the retina. Since blood is required to nourish the retina, high sugar levels can damage the rear of the eye. The damage to the blood vessels in the retina due to diabetes is known as diabetic retinopathy. It affects both the eyes of the patient.

Symptoms

The vision gets affected and you start seeing specks or threads known as floaters.

Blurred vision with fluctuations and color impairment.

Loss of vision or dark and empty areas in the vision.

Types of Diabetic Retinopathy

Based on the severity of damage to blood vessels, there are two types of diabetic retinopathy –

Background Diabetic Retinopathy- Blood vessels are damaged leading to leakages in vitreous fluid, fats, and protein. Blood vessels may rupture leading to blood clotting or hemorrhage/bleeding.

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy – The poor quality of blood nutrition and oxygen leads to this severe condition with blockage of blood vessels. The optic disc may develop a large number of fragile and abnormal vessels which rupture and cause excessive bleeding or blindness.

Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy is primarily caused by diabetes or increased levels of sugar or glucose in the blood supply. Since retina has to be nourished regularly with fresh blood pumped by the heart, there are many risks such as –

Prolonged periods of diabetic condition without proper treatment.

Poor treatment for diabetes leading to increased sugar levels.

High BP and bad cholesterol content.

Lifestyle choices such as tobacco consumption.

Pregnancy and ethnic background can also increase the risk of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Complications

The various complications that result from untreated Diabetic Retinopathy include the following –

Vitreous Hemorrhage – The fluid between lens and retina leaks.

Retinal Detachment –retinal tears and separates from back of the eye.

Glaucoma -increase sensation of pressure in the eye.

Optic Nerve Damage & Vision Loss – Pictures or images get blurred and lost leading to blindness.

Diabetic Maculopathy – The macula of the diabetic patient becomes diseased and this causes difficulty in near vision due to the involvement of the central vision areas of the eye.

How to detect and prevent vision loss due to Diabetic Retinopathy?

Visual symptoms are rare and the diabetic does not observe any changes in his or her vision. In addition, even diabetics with proliferative retinopathy have good vision for 5 years or more after diagnosis. Hence, the best preventive care suggested by experts includes the following –

Control of diabetes through proper treatment from experienced dialecticians.

Blood Pressure and Cholesterol control with periodic check-ups.

Routine Eye exams as per the advice of ophthalmologist.

Lifestyle changes to prevent alcoholism and nicotine addiction

Clinical Investigations And Modern Treatments –

The following diagnostic tools and investigative procedures are suggested by expert physicians with experience in eye care –

Dilated Eye Exam – This is the best and most comprehensive diagnosis in which retina, optic nerve, and vitreous fluid are checked for leakages, tears, and abnormalities such as excessive growth, swelling, scarring, and fat or protein deposits.

Fundus Photograph – A fundus camera is used to take specialized images of retina without any invasive contact with the eye.

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) – The peripheral or side veins in the eye are injected with a dye and the leakage studied to ascertain severity of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) – A non-invasive fundus photograph is taken of the retina to study the severity of the retinal damage. There is no needle or injection and 3D OCT device at our eye centre provides the best results as the image quality is very high.

Additional Check Ups -The eyes are also tested for cataracts, vision test, and glaucoma pressure as a part of thorough investigation.

Modern Treatments

Diabetic Retinopathy can be treated with conventional injections or more modern techniques listed below –

Laser photo-coagulation:Light beam or photonic energy is directed using ultra-modern devices to burn the retina tissue and stop bleeding or other types of leakages. This is as an accurate and precise procedure for treating retinopathy and preventing retinal detachment.

Intravitreal injections: Micro needles are used to inject medicine into the vitreous. Very mild to no pain is experienced by the patient, but the benefits far outweigh any discomfort or inconvenience.

Surgery:Micro-incisions are made into the eye without any need for stitches to remove vitreous gel from the middle of the eye. This is an advanced keyhole surgery to repair internal damage.