Glaucoma Services

Glaucoma Services – Relief From Eye Pain With Modern Treatments

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a medical condition of the eye in which the optic nerve can be damaged due to intra-ocular pressure. One of the leading causes of blindness is due to gradual loss of vision resulting from glaucoma. This is a common problem in people who are over 40 years of age. Detection of Glaucoma at an early stage using advanced diagnostics can prevent further complications.
In a healthy eye, a clear transparent fluid known as ‘aqueous humor’ is secreted. It is continuously drained out into the blood vessels through microscopic channels inside the eye. If for any reason there is a blockage to these vessels, then the fluid accumulates in the eye causing constant build-up of pressure. If this pressure sensation is not properly diagnosed and treated, it can go out of control. This leads to severe damage of the optic nerve and the patient may even go blind.

Two Categories Of Glaucoma

Professional ophthalmologists divide Glaucoma into two broad categories-:

Open-angle Glaucoma

Closed-angle (or “angle closure”) Glaucoma.

Of these two, Open-angle chronic glaucoma is the most common condition in which patient loses his or her vision in a gradual and painless manner. This type of Glaucoma is usually detected at an early stage during routine eye check up with a competent doctor.

Symptoms

The patient’s vision gradually diminishes leading to blurred or foggy vision.

There is no noticeable improvement in the patient’s vision despite frequent changes to the eye-glasses.

The patient experiences mild chronic headache.

The peripheral or side vision develops blind spots or scotomas.

The patient sees coloured halos around lights.

Acute or Closed Angle Glaucoma

Fluid is produced and drains out from a particular angle in the patient’s eyes. In this condition, the angle of fluid outflow is genetically narrow for some individuals. This leads to sudden blockage of fluid outflow leading to a sharp increase in eye pressure.

Symptoms

Severe eye pain accompanied by headache and facial pain.

Blurring of vision in a sudden and abrupt manner

The vision gets cloudy and the patient sees halos around lights.

The eyes become red and sore.

Patient experiences nausea and vomiting.

Glaucoma Treatment:

Since the major symptom of Glaucoma is eye pressure, the specialist treats with the objective of reducing the pressure. This is done to ensure that the optic nerve does not get damaged. The existing damage of poor vision cannot be reversed, but further loss of vision or blindness can be prevented in a successful manner.

The Modalities Of Treatment –

Eye Drops Administration – The intra-ocular fluid pressure can be reduced and controlled by instilling eye drops in a periodic manner, as prescribed by the eye doctor.

Medicines –Use prescription drugs for shorter periods of time to decrease acute pressure. The eye doctor also suggests tablets along with eye drops if the condition warrants such a treatment.

Two Types Of Laser Treatment:

Laser Iridotomy :-The iris is the thin, circular area in the centre of the eye around the pupil. A hole or opening is made into the iris by the surgeon using an advanced laser device for facilitating drainage of blocked channels. This procedure is suggested for acute or narrow angle glaucoma.

Peripheral Iridectomy :-This is a very rare surgery that is performed in the operating room to remove a part of iris. This procedure provides the aqueous fluid with access to the drainage angle once again

Laser Trabeculoplasty

A focussed laser beam pierces the trabecular structures to treat the drainage angle of the eye. This procedure is useful in open angle glaucoma cases for reduction of intraocular pressure. It also helps in the prevention of damage to the optic nerve.

Surgery For Glaucoma Using Trabeculectomy:

The trabecular meshwork is the tissue located at the base of the cornea. In this surgery additional drainage channel is created for the outflow of excess fluid. The abnormally blocked channels are bypassed by removing part of trabecular meshwork and adjacent structures inside the eye. It is suggested by the surgeons for most types of glaucoma.

Glaucoma Drainage Device Or Aqueous Shunt Surgery

A small puncture is made into the iris and a small plate is placed on the outside of the eye. This plate is connected to the iris hole via a small tube. The fluid drains out of the iris through this tube and into the plate from where it is absorbed into the blood vessels.
This surgery is typically reserved for patients who have severe and uncontrolled glaucoma due to a failed glaucoma surgery in the past. Patients with Trabeculectomy failure can also undergo this advanced surgery. This procedure has become standard in recent times for patients with –

Neovascular and Uveitic glaucomas

Congenital and Developmental glaucoma

Traumatic glaucoma, Aphakic and Pseudophakic glaucoma

Post-keratoplasty glaucoma and other Secondary glaucoma.

Uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma.

Warning – Always consult your eye surgeon for treatment modality and additional information on advanced implantable devices for treating glaucoma.